Gynecomastia Research

Research and medical articles covering Gynecomastia and its treatment.

According to the Belvedere Clinic in 2010, in the USA over 20,000 men had Gynecomastia, or breast reduction surgery and statistics show that in the UK there has been a 44% increase between 2007 and 2011 in men undergoing the same procedure.

Plastic surgery statistics in the UK show a record number of “man boob” reduction operations as the rise in demand outstrips that for all other procedures – including women’s breast enlargement.

Figures published by the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPs) – that really is its acronym – showed operations to correct gynecomastia in men grew by 27.5%, while overall male cosmetic surgery grew by 6.6%.

Gynecomastia or male breast reduction is one of the 5 most popular procedures performed for men in the UK, as per the statistics from the BAAPS. And most teenage boys experience some degree of breast enlargement affecting one or both breasts. However, by early adulthood less than 10% have a residual problem. This incidence rises with age, reaching approximately 30% (1 in 3) in older men.

Here are extrapolated incidents of Gynecomastia by country:

Here are the latest research findings on Gynecomastia.

Tamoxifen treatment for pubertal gynecomastia By Derman O, Kanbur NO, Kutluk T.
Section of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics,
Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100 Ankara-Turkey.


Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Breast. Little, Brown, and Co. 1976. 305-327. Author : Robert M. Goldwyn.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Breast. Ed. by R. Barrett Noone. Pub by B. C. Decker 1991. p. 98-116.

Journal Articles:

Wassersug, Oliffe. The Social Context for Psychological Distress from Iatrogenic Gynecomastia with Suggestions for Its Management. Journal of Sexual Medicine. Oct 2009, vol 6(4). p. 989-1000.[PDF]

Singer-Granick, Granick. Gynecomastia What the Surgeon Needs to Know, ePlasty, Vol 9

Botta. Alternatives for the Surgical Correction of Severe Gynecomastia. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Jan/Feb 1998. p. 65-7.

Neuman. Evaluation and Treatment of Gynecomastia. American Family Physician. April 1997. p. 1835-1847.

Samdal, Kleppe, Amland, + Abyholm. Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia: Five Years’ Experience with Liposuction. Scandanavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Hand Surgery. June 1994, p. 123-30.

Brenner, Berger, Schneider, Axmann. Male Reduction Mammoplasty in Serious Gynecomastias. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Fall 1992. p. 325-30.

Kornstein, Cinelli. Inferior Pedicle Reduction Technique for Larger Forms of Gynecomastia. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Fall 1992. p.331-5.

Ward, Khalid. Surgical Treatment of Grade III Gynaecomastia. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. July 1989. p. 226-8.

Courtiss. Gynecomastia: Analysis of 159 Patients and Current Recommendations for Treatment. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, 1987, (vol?) 79. p. 740-50.

Huang, Hidalgo, + Lewis. A Circumareolar Approach in Surgical Management of Gynecomastia. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. January 1982. p. 35-40.

Simon, Hoffman, + Kahn. Classification and Surgical Correction of Gynecomastia. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. January 1973. p. 48-52.

Recent Medical Articles

Male Patients Fighting Against Breast Cancer

Health and Science (Dec 18, 2005)

Because the article link may not work in future and the site requires registration, we have provided a pdf of the article here.

Gynecomastia and transgender article
…” reviews a wide sample of papers describing gynecomastia, its occurrence in metabolic disorders, and its presence in case vignettes or biographies of transgender biological males.”
Click here to read!

Article on Breast Cancer In Men
Click here to read!

Article on Merle Yost from Surgery News,
Click here to view the full article.

Newly discovered mutations possibly linked to breast cancer
Click here to view the full article.

Nursing Fathers

Aromatase and gynecomastia
An article on Aromatase and gynecomastia has recently been discovered.

Pubmed study
A new pubmed study has been released showing the difference in recurrences depending on the removal procedure used. Check it out : here!


Mayo Clinic

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